Since Motorola introduced Six Sigma in the 1980s, dozens of leading companies have adopted its techniques. Six Sigma is a quality initiative which focuses on defects per million–at the Six Sigma level the expectation is a mere 3.4 defects per million. It goes well beyond earlier approaches to quality such as TQM and requires entirely new procedures. Six Sigma was initially designed to improve manufacturing processes, but these days the techniques are being applied to various business areas, including sales, human resources, and customer service. “Defect” is defined differently according to the process involved. This article explores the four-step process for achieving Six Sigma: Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.